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Egypt is a fabulous land of pyramids, mummies, temples, pharaohs. The sights of Egypt beckon deep into the centuries, forcing you to plunge into the history of antiquity and feel the spirit of those times. Modernity and antiquity miraculously coexist here with each other, giving this land a bewitchingly magical look. The country is distinguished by originality, loyalty to traditions and a characteristic oriental flavor. The dry and hot climate allows you to come here on vacation in any season: even in the winter months, the water temperature in the sea is above 20 degrees. For guests who arrived in Egypt for the first time, the question naturally arises – what to see in Egypt in the first place? Consider the list of the main attractions that deserve your attention and, of course, will not leave you indifferent.
What to see in Egypt in the first place
At the service of tourists there are not only educational excursions in Egypt to the places of ancient civilizations, but also exciting trips through the desert, visits to water parks and much more. It will not be possible to cover everything at once in one visit, but the information we have collected will give us a chance to quickly determine where we would most like to go.
1. Giza Pyramids (8 km from Giza)
Pyramids of Giza – a symbol of ancient Egyptian civilization
In the Libyan desert, on the Giza plateau, is the most important “place of power” on the continent and, perhaps, one of the most beautiful places on our planet. These are the Great Pyramids of Giza, which are a whole city-cemetery with temples, tombs, roads. The ancient necropolis includes the Pyramid of Khufu (also known as the Pyramid of Cheops, one of the 7 wonders of the world), the slightly smaller Pyramid of Khafra and the much more modest Pyramid of Menkaure, as well as several smaller satellite pyramids.
In fact, this complex is a cemetery for real aristocrats, where the pharaohs were buried, as well as all their close associates – wives, servants, close relatives and everyone who had a noble origin and wanted to go to the next world after their master.
In general, the whole complex, in addition to the pyramids, consists of:
- temples located at the beginning of the memorial road that leads to the pyramids; cemeteries where close relatives and courtiers of the pharaohs were buried; the most ancient monument in the world – the sculpture of the Sphinx.
The rocky plateau on which the pyramids were erected provided the material for their construction – limestone blocks were extracted from a quarry located nearby.
Official website: http://www.sca- egypt.org
2. Valley of the Pharaohs (Luxor)
Ancient royal tomb Valley of the Pharaohs
In the 16th century BC. in order to bury the rulers of Egypt, the Valley of the Kings was created – a place in a rocky gorge, where a number of tombs were organized. At one time, this place was secret and was strictly guarded by caretakers who protected it from raids and robbery.
The tradition of the burial of the pharaohs was laid by one of them – Thutmose I, who, fearing for the looting of his own tomb, ordered to organize it in inaccessible, impassable place. And so the valley of Thebes appeared – the most important sight of Egypt, which has preserved its appearance to this day.
The place for the Great Magic Necropolis was not chosen by chance:
- the material for the construction of tombs – limestone – in this rocky area is quite hard, which makes it possible to protect the tombs from cracks and destruction; the path to the Valley allows the funeral procession to move quickly and unhindered; at the same time, there is only one single entrance to the Valley, passing along a narrow path and protected by steep cliffs; the location of the Valley is at a great distance from the mortuary temple, the tombs of which have been plundered more than once.
To date, more than 60 pharaohs, as well as the wives and children of the rulers, rest in the Valley. Inside the Valley, a whole system of complex tunnels and wells has been formed, and the walls are covered with frescoes telling about the life of the buried persons.
3. Temple of Luxor (Luxor)
Impressive sight of Luxor temple complex
If during your travels you, by the will of fate, ended up in the ancient city of history and magic – Luxor, then the question of what to visit in Egypt can be considered resolved. Of course, this is the majestic Luxor Temple – a monumental religious building built in the 14th century BC. The temple strikes with the perfection and harmony of forms, especially when you realize the degree of antiquity of this historical monument. One of the largest temples in Egypt has a total length of about 260 meters, and massive trapezoidal towers – pylons that adorn the entrance, reach 20 meters in height and 70 meters in length.
The temple was erected by order of Pharaoh Amenhotep III, who ruled at that time, who dedicated it to the sun god Amon-Ra, his wife Mut and their son Khons. In ancient times, 6 huge statues of Pharaoh Ramses II towered at the entrance to the temple, but only two of them have survived to this day. Here you can also admire a huge 25-meter obelisk painted with frescoes. Initially, there were two of them, but one of them was donated to France by order of the ruler Mohamed Ali in 1819.
For many centuries, this temple was covered with sand, and only in the middle of the 19th century did its excavations begin. It is noteworthy that excavations continue to this day, and archaeologists continue to find new details of the temple complex.
4. The resort city of Sharm el-Sheikh (south of the Sinai Peninsula)
The beaches of Sharm El Sheikh
In the south of the Sinai Peninsula, there is a favorite attraction of Egypt by many – the resort town of Sharm el-Sheikh, which has a reputation as the most prestigious seaside resort in Egypt. The love of the guests of the country for this city is justified – it has its own special charm, and the local landscapes contrast markedly against the backdrop of sands, numerous ruins, rocks and canyons. Numerous palm trees, bright green lawns, a variety of outlandish flowers, an emerald sea with a rich and colorful underwater world, wide beaches with clean and soft sand – all this turns the resort area of the town of Sharm el-Sheikh, stretching for 35 kilometers, into a real oasis in the sands desert.
The resort is especially attractive for diving enthusiasts. This is due to the fact that here is the Ras Muhammad National Park, known throughout the world for its underwater riches – in terms of the number of corals and colorful fauna, it has practically no equal in the whole world. Dozens of diving centers here offer everything you need to equip divers, local shops are literally littered with professional diving equipment.
In addition to diving, there are many opportunities for entertainment: jacuzzis, tennis courts, swimming pools, golf clubs, gyms, parachutes, jet skis, a dolphinarium and much more.
5. Montaza Palace and Park (Alexandria)
Montaza Royal Palace and Park Complex
Once in the mysterious and ancient country of the pharaohs, every traveler can be convinced from his own experience that he has something to see in Egypt, in addition to studying numerous excavations and ancient ruins. One of the brightest examples of this is the royal palace and park complex of Montaza, located in eastern Alexandria, on the shore of a small bay. Against the backdrop of most of the sights of Egypt, the Montaza Palace stands out for the beauty of natural landscapes, the comfort of green alleys and intricate pavilions. Here, among the greenery of centuries-old trees, flower beds, ponds, Greek sculptures, you can wander for hours, inhaling the aromas of vegetation and enjoying the excellent panorama.
The palace itself was built not so long ago – at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, as the summer residence of the Egyptian kings. On the vast territory of the park in 1892, the first was built a small palace – Salamlik, made in the Austrian style and served as a hunting lodge for the last ruler of the Muhammad Ali dynasty – Khedive Abbas II. The main palace and royal gardens appeared on this territory a little later, in 1932. Elements of Florentine and Turkish architecture intertwined in the external design of the palace, and around the palace there is a luxurious park planted with palm trees, pines and other coniferous trees, equipped with alleys for walking and pavilions for relaxing.
Watch the beautiful places of Egypt in this wonderful video!
6. Temple of Karnak
The largest open-air museum Karnak Temple
One of the largest buildings of Ancient Egypt that has survived to this day, as well as the largest religious complex in the world, is the Temple of Karnak, located on the east bank of the Nile, 2 kilometers from Luxor. To date, the Temple of Karnak is one of the main historical monuments and the second most visited attraction in Egypt, after the well-known pyramids of Giza.
Karnak Temple is a huge temple complex measuring 1.5 kilometers by 0.7 kilometers, which includes 33 temples and halls – all this is more like a kind of city than a building. This entire complex has undergone a number of changes and additions over the course of 2 millennia, because each of the pharaohs sought to supplement and transform this splendor in his own way, to contribute and leave some memory of the period of his reign.
The entire temple complex includes into several parts:
- the central part, dedicated to the god Amun-Ra, with a colonnade of 134 sixteen-meter columns, which once supported the vault and formed a sacred corridor; the southern part is a temple dedicated to Queen Mut, the wife of the Sun God; the northern part is the ruins of the temple of Montu, dedicated to the son of Amon-Ra and Mut.
7. Mount Sinai (Sinai Peninsula)
Mount Moses in Egypt
In Egypt, there is one interesting place that keeps a history of thousands of years. The significance of this place has recently faded somewhat against the backdrop of popular attractions in Egypt – such as the pyramids of Giza or the resort of Sharm el-Sheikh. Mount Sinai, located on the Sinai Peninsula, is perhaps the first thing to visit in Egypt for those who are interested in local shrines.
Mount Sinai, also known as Mount Moses, is a place with which one biblical story is connected. It is believed that it was here that the prophet Moses received the ten commandments from the Lord and passed them on to his people. Since this story exists not only in Christianity, the Jewish and Islamic religions also adhere to these commandments.
Therefore, here, on the top of the mountain, at an altitude of 2,285 m, each of these religions has its own temple. There is a chapel dedicated to the Trinity and a mosque of about the same size, and the Jews will show the way to the cave, which, according to legend, served as a refuge for Moses for 40 days while he communicated with God.
The pilgrimage to the top of Mount Moses (Sinai) has been going on for millennia – the Byzantine Empress Elena herself made a pilgrimage here. According to legend, it was by her order that the chapel of the Burning Bush was founded.
8. Temple of Ramses II in Abu Simbel (Nubia)
Seated Colossi of the Pharaoh in the Temple of Ramses II
Among the most famous monuments of ancient Egyptian culture is another historical landmark of Egypt – the cave temple of Ramses II in Nubia. This temple was erected around 1260 BC, in compliance with the then existing traditions of decorating tombs. The structure of the temple in Abu Simbel includes two buildings – the Great and the Small Temple.
The large temple was dedicated to Pharaoh Ramses II, who was ruling at that time, as well as to the gods Amun-Ra, Ptah and Khorakhta. The entrance to the temple is directed to the east, and one interesting fact is noteworthy: twice a year, on March 21 and September 21, at about 6 o'clock in the morning, a ray of the rising sun penetrates into all the premises of the temple and illuminates the figure of Ramses II and Amun-Ra, and then for some time illuminates the face of the pharaoh so that he seems to begin to “smile”. Further, the beam advances and illuminates the figure of Horakhte for some time, but Ptah always remains hidden in the shadows, because he is the lord of the underworld, and he does not need sunlight.
The small temple was dedicated to the sky goddess Hathor. The decoration here is much simpler, and the temple itself consists of a sanctuary and a hall of columns. There are 3 niches in the sanctuary, one of which contains the figure of a cow, personifying the image of the goddess.
9. St. Catherine's Monastery (Mount Sinai, Sinai Peninsula)
Holy Monastery Catherine at Sinai
At the foot of Mount Sinai, there is another oldest landmark of Egypt, one of the oldest operating temple complexes in the world – the monastery of St. Catherine. The temple, built about 1.5 thousand years ago (527-565 AD), has never been destroyed, captured, damaged in the entire history of its existence, so nothing prevented it from maintaining its appearance to this day.
The name of St. Catherine was not given to the monastery immediately, but only in the 11th century, in honor of the Great Martyr Catherine. From a young age, this virgin believed in Christ, converted many people to Christianity, for which she suffered a lot of troubles and hardships in her life. She was repeatedly forced to return to the worship of pagan gods, but the young maiden was adamant. For this, Emperor Maximin, who ruled in those years, ordered her to be executed by cutting off her head. According to legend, after death, the body of Catherine was transferred by angels to the top of Mount Sinai, and the monks found the remains of the great martyr, identifying her by the ring given to her by Jesus Christ himself.
The monastery includes a large temple – the Basilica of the Transfiguration, as well as 12 small chapels, a garden, a refectory and a huge library of manuscripts, inferior in value only to the Vatican library.
Every Orthodox pilgrim who comes to this monastery receives a silver ring with a heart depicted with the monogram “K” – so the Great Martyr Catherine, who was martyred, gives a piece of her heart to everyone who comes here.
Official website: http: //www.sinaimonastery.com
10. Library of Alexandrina (Alexandria)
New Library of Alexandria
The technological progress inherent in our time has not been able to radically change preferences, and true connoisseurs of literature have not disappeared among us, who have something to see in Egypt, in addition to popular resorts, majestic castles or ancient ruins. Of course, this is the Library of Alexandrina in Alexandria, also called the New Library of Alexandria.
The progenitor of the new library was the Ancient Library of Alexandria, founded in the 3rd century BC. How it was destroyed, history is silent, it remains only to assume that it was either a fire or a set of events, as a result of which the cultural place was plundered and destroyed to the ground.
The idea of building the New Library of Alexandria first appeared in the 1970s among professors at the University of Alexandria. And only in 1992, preparatory work began on the construction of the library building, and in 1995 the construction process began, which was completed in 2001. In 2002, the library solemnly opened its doors in the presence of leaders from many countries.
The library building has an unusual shape of glass and aluminum cylinder with a slanted dome. The library is designed for approximately 8 million books, and the collections of works stored in it are collected literally from all over the world. The main reading room has a huge area – about 70 thousand square meters. m on 11 levels cascading. In addition to the reading room itself, the library complex includes:
- a conference room; specialized library for the blind; planetarium; 3 museums; 4 art galleries; laboratory for the restoration of manuscripts.
Official website: http://www.bibalex.org
Egypt attractions: what else to visit while in Egypt
The key to a successful trip to the land of the pharaohs will be professional guides in Egypt and a pre-compiled list of places that you definitely need to visit. Another significant point is the weather conditions (more precisely, the choice of time for the trip), because it is very hot in this country, and some of the sights are located in open space.
11. Kite Bay Fortress (Alexandria)
Entrance to the Kite Bay fortress
On the Mediterranean coast, near Alexandria, a major commercial, industrial and financial center of the country, there is another important attraction of Egypt – the fortress of Qait Bay. It was determined that the fortress was erected in 1477 right on the ruins of the Lighthouse of Alexandria. As you know, the Lighthouse of Alexandria is recognized as one of the 7 wonders of the world. The strongest earthquake in 1100 destroyed this structure, but the lighthouse was not destined to completely disappear from the face of the earth, and its foundation was “immortalized” in its own way as the foundation of the fortress.
The Kite Bay fortress played the role of a strategically important point in the Mediterranean. She experienced crushing blows at different times as a result of enemy raids, but over and over again she was restored, and her military power was revived again.
So, for as many as 5 centuries, the fortress passed into the possession of the Ottoman Empire. Later, the well-known outpost could not resist the blows of the French army led by Napoleon. At the beginning of the 19th century, Muhammad Ali put a lot of effort into restoring the fortress and eliminating the destruction. Less than a century later, the fortress suffered a severe defeat as a result of an attack by British troops.
And only in 1952, Kite Bay came under the patronage of the Egyptian Maritime Museum, and in the last years of the 20th century, large-scale reconstruction work was carried out, and the fortress acquired almost its original appearance, which it retains today.
12 Colored Canyon (Nuweiba)
Fantasy of nature in the Colored Canyon
One of the most unusual places on the planet is the Colored Canyon near the town of Nuweiba in Egypt. Once here, a person clearly feels all the power of nature and the power of the elements. It took about 5 million years to form this miracle of nature: initially there was a powerful earthquake that split the rock and created a crack in it 5 kilometers deep. Over millions of years, the crack was washed away by rains, deepened as a result of strong winds, its lines became more and more smooth.
The rocks are composed of an unusual rock – colored sandstone. It is thanks to the combination of different colors in the rocky rock that the canyon got its name. Despite the heat, the bottom of the canyon is always cool. Walking along the narrow gorge, from 30 cm to 1 meter wide, you can take a closer look at its walls, formed from stony soil interspersed with corals – confirmation that this part of the Sinai Peninsula was once under water long ago.
< p>The entire canyon consists of many labyrinths, and its total length is about 5 kilometers. The route starts at the top, and then a narrow winding path gradually descends to the bottom of the gorge, the passage becomes narrower, and on the sheer cliffs there are bizarre patterns created by nature itself. Jeeps and numerous souvenir shops await travelers at the exit of the canyon.
13. Khan el-Khalili Market (Cairo)
The unique medieval flavor of the Cairo bazaar
Noisy shopping bazaars, full of a variety of goods, can be found in any corner of the world, but only a few of them become iconic for both locals and visiting tourists. Those wishing to immerse themselves in the atmosphere of a busy market and plunge into the local flavor, of course, have something to see in Egypt.
The world-famous Khan el-Khalili market in Cairo attracts guests from all over the world with its assortment that boggles the imagination of the most sophisticated visitor. There is everything here to buy and take with you a piece of this country that embodies the local flavor: all kinds of spices, jewelry, scarves, perfumes, lamps and much more, which can leave a memory of a trip to Egypt for many years. During a walk through the narrow streets of the market, the atmosphere of the Middle Ages begins to be especially clearly felt, which not only allows you to get the joy of shopping, but also makes it possible to look into the distant past.
Countless shops, stalls full of goods, noisy sellers and visitors – all this will drag you into a single cycle of events and impressions. Tired of the bustle of the market, you can look into any local coffee house or restaurant, drink a cup of aromatic coffee or explore the variety of local dishes.
14. Ros-Mohammed National Park (south of the Sinai Peninsula)
The magical world of coral reefs in Ros-Mohammed Park
Between the rich coral beds of the Red Sea, on the southernmost coast of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt's most famous national park is located, which has become the most popular place for spearfishing in the world. Real divers have something to see in Egypt – this is Ras Mohammed, whose territory was declared a protected area in 1989. The underwater world of the coastal zone of the reserve is so rich that this picturesque place once conquered the famous traveler – Jacques Yves Cousteau. The world of corals in the Ras Mohammed reserve is incredibly rich and diverse: it can be whole mountains of coral reefs under water, and endless cliffs leading into the unknown depths of the sea, and flat endless plateaus.
The age of the reefs that have risen from the depths of the sea here can be billions of years old! The emerald waters of the Red Sea on this coast are characterized by a real abundance of different forms of life. There are about 220 species of corals alone here. The local fauna also surprises with its diversity:
- about a thousand species of fish; 25 types of sea urchins; one and a half hundred species of crustaceans; a hundred species of molluscs; and also here you can meet green sea turtles, dolphins, white storks.
15. Al-Azhar Park (Cairo)
Green oasis of Al Azhar Park
Al-Azhar Park in Cairo is one of the new attractions in Egypt worthy of your attention. The construction and equipment of the grandiose park with a total area of 30 hectares began in 1997 and took about a decade.
Work on the arrangement of the park began with clearing the areas located between the Mamluk tomb and the city wall of Salah ad-Din. The hilly, abandoned, and landfilled area was leveled and cleared of debris, resulting in a view of many hidden sections of the city wall – towers, galleries, gates, and more. All this was subject to restoration, and the old city backyards were eventually turned into a beautiful park.
The area was leveled, water supply systems were laid underground, a pumping station was installed, which provides water supply and the operation of park fountains. Throughout the park, 655,000 seedlings of various plants have been planted, roads have been laid, and vast areas for walking and recreation have been equipped. More complex facilities have also been equipped, such as restaurants and cafes on the grounds, from where beautiful panoramas of the park open up.
Today, the Al-Azhar park complex is a huge space surrounded by greenery of planted trees, a small man-made lake, water channels, paths and a palm yard in the very center. The official opening of Al-Azhar Park took place in May 2005.
Official website: http://www.azharpark.com/
16. Cheops Pyramid (Giza Plateau)
Pyramid of Cheops – the largest of the Egyptian pyramids on the Giza plateau Nina
Tourist Egypt is simply impossible to imagine the greatest monuments of antiquity – the grandiose Egyptian pyramids. The largest of the pyramids located on the Giza plateau is the Pyramid of Cheops. Presumably, the weight of the structure is about 4 million tons, and the height is about 140 meters – impressive numbers, given that the structure was erected by people 4.5 thousand years ago. It is still not known for certain by what means and for what purpose these monuments were erected. There are only a few versions, according to one of which the pyramids were used as a granary during the great famine – these events are confirmed in the Holy Scriptures. According to another legend, the pyramid was used to bury the body of the pharaoh, whose soul passed here to the upper world. The masonry of the structure is impressive – the density of the stones is so great that the thinnest razor blade cannot pass between them. Inside the pyramid there are passages and chambers, mysterious rooms and ventilation openings.
17. The Great Sphinx (Gizeh Plateau)
The Great Sphinx on the west bank of the Nile at Giza
All on the same plateau of Giza, not far from the pyramid of Khafre, there is another impressive monument of antiquity – the mysterious Great Sphinx, which is considered the oldest monumental sculpture in the world. The mystery of its origin and purpose of construction remain a mystery. The monument, 73 meters long and about 20 meters high, is carved directly from the rock and represents a lion with a human head. It must be said that the image of the sphinx is traditional for Egyptian culture – it was worshiped as a royal animal associated with the sun god – Ra. For many centuries, the mysterious sculpture was under a thick layer of sand – they tried to unearth it since the 14th century. BC, but the first excavations were unsuccessful. The restoration of the sculpture helped reveal interesting facts – for example, it turned out that the Sphinx was built earlier than the pyramids known to everyone, and under the left paw of the lion, a tunnel leading to the pyramid of Khafre goes deeper.
18. Egyptian Museum (Cairo)
Exhibits of the Egyptian Museum on the north side of Tahrir Square in Cairo Ovedc
In the very center of the capital city of Cairo, there is the largest repository of artifacts reflecting the ancient history of Egypt – the Cairo Egyptian Museum. A grandiose collection of 136,000 finds is located in more than a hundred rooms, and another 40,000 exhibits are hidden in the basements, where many artifacts have already been swallowed up by soft ground. The museum's collection is so large that, according to general estimates, it will take more than one year to study all the exhibits! All items in the museum are arranged chronologically and thematically, and the oldest items are already five millennia old. Within the walls of the complex, for example, you can see 11 mummies of pharaohs, sarcophagi, objects of art, everyday life and other things that reflect the life of the ancient Egyptians. The collection dedicated to items from the tomb of Tutankhamun deserves special attention – this is a death mask, as well as furniture, dishes, jewelry and even a royal chariot.
19. Church of the Holy Virgin Mary (Cairo)
Courtyard of the Coptic Church of the Holy Virgin Mary on the grounds of Old Cairo Daniel Mayer
If the Muhammad Ali Mosque is a well-known Muslim symbol of Cairo, then the Church of the Holy Virgin Mary is the main symbol of all Egyptians who preach Christianity and are called Copts. The Church of the Virgin Mary was erected around the 3rd century BC, and it has retained the appearance it has now since the 7th-9th centuries AD. The temple is located in the Coptic quarter, where, in addition to this shrine, there are a number of other Christian churches. The main attraction within the walls of the temple is a carved wooden iconostasis made of Lebanese cedar from the 12th-13th centuries. Perhaps one of the most memorable moments in the history of the church was a three-year period in the 20th century, when a number of miraculous phenomena occurred in the vicinity – for example, a luminous image of the Virgin Mary appeared several times above the roof in the sky, and inside the temple everything was periodically lit up with a mysterious light, they flew in and circled shining birds that look like doves.
Official website: http://www.coptic-cairo
20. Tutankhamun Museum (Sharm el-Sheikh)
Artifacts from the famous tomb of King Tut in Tutankhamun's museum in Sharm el-Sheikh Matthew Dillon
Exhibition “Treasures of King Tut” at Tutankhamun Museum Matthew Dillon
Perhaps the most important in the study of Egypt are the historical and cultural sights of Egypt. Sharm el-Sheikh is a city where quite recently, in 2014, a museum dedicated to the life of one of the Egyptian pharaohs was opened. Despite his short 18-year life, Tutankhamun is today one of the most famous rulers, but he became famous not for his outstanding reign, but due to the fact that his tomb was the only one that has survived unplundered to this day. Therefore, the exposition of Tutankhamun's museum is based on numerous items from his tomb, of which there are more than one and a half thousand in total, but only about a hundred are exhibited here. It is worth noting that the presented exhibits are only copies of these items, and all one and a half thousand originals are stored in another place – the National Museum in Cairo.
Official website: http://www. genecity
21. Abu el-Abbas Mosque (Alexandria)
Entrance to the mosque of Abu el-Abbas in the Alexandria region of Anfushi
In the middle of a crowded square in the city of Alexandria, the artsy 73-meter minaret of the mosque of Abu el-Abbas with 4 symmetrically arranged domes rushed up. The entire façade of the building is covered with lace patterns of Arabic patterns – arabesques, which can be viewed for hours. This large beautiful mosque was built in the 14th century over the tomb of the prophet, after whom it was named. This holy prophet is one of the most revered saints in the country; he is considered the patron saint of sailors and fishermen. Two main entrances lead to the mosque: the northern entrance leads from the side of the square and the street adjacent to the royal palace, the eastern door leads to another part of the square. The main interior hall of the mosque has the shape of an octagon, each side of which is 22 meters long. The inner surface of the walls and ceiling is decorated with fancy mosaics, and the ceilings are decorated with traditional Arabic paintings.
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Huge dilapidated stone statues on the west bank Nile near Luxor MusikAnimal
The Colossi of Memnon are an integral part of the architectural heritage of Ancient Egypt. Once these giant statues were erected in honor of one of the Egyptian pharaohs – Amenhotep III, and it is believed that it is he who is embodied in these stone sculptures. Once the sculptures were part of the complex – a temple in the name of the pharaoh stood here, but over time it collapsed, and the 20-meter “guards” built from sandstone blocks survived. The reason for the destruction of the temple was supposedly the floods of the Nile River, which eventually “washed away” it from the face of the earth. Once upon a time, the colossi were called “singing” – they really made peculiar sounds: when heated, air leaked through a certain hole in the northern Colossus, creating a kind of melody. However, one of the earthquakes significantly destroyed the northern statue, which, even after the restoration by the Romans, did not begin to “sing”.
23. Temples of Philae Island (Nile River)
Philae Island Temple Moved to Agilkia Island by Dan Lundberg
Trajan's Kiosk – part of the temple complex on the island of Philae Arronestone20034
If the famous Luxor temple, of which only fragments remain today, witnessed the economic and political flowering of ancient Egyptian civilization during the New Kingdom, then the temple of Isis on the island of Philae is a living testimony of the Ptolemaic era. Once it was the center of the cult of the goddess, representing the Egyptian ideal of femininity and motherhood, but as a result of the construction of the Aswan Dam, the original buildings completely disappeared into the water. An operation was carried out to remove all the Philae monuments from the water, after which they were moved to a neighboring island and rebuilt. The Temple of Isis was the very first building on the island – it began to be built in the 4th century BC, was completed during the reign of the Ptolemaic dynasty, and was completed only under the emperor Caracalla. Today, the temple complex, in addition to the temple of Isis, includes the temple of Nectaneb I, the temple of the goddess Hathor, the “Kiosk” of Trajan.
24. Suez Canal (Egypt)
A tug in the foreground in a navigable lockless canal in northeastern Egypt
The Suez Canal is one of the most important sea arteries on the planet, allowing ships to sail in both directions without going around Africa. Previously, the transportation of goods was carried out with the unloading of ships, by land transportation between the Red and Mediterranean Seas. Today, the shortest route between the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean waters passes through the waters of the canal. For this purpose, the canal was opened in the 19th century, although it is worth noting that the idea of creating such an artery first arose in antiquity – in the 7th century BC, but the project never came to fruition, and a century later the Persian conquerors of Egypt construction began, but never completed. And only in the 19th century a great project started, the author of which was the French engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps. Today, from 60 to 80 ships pass through the canal every day, and the income from its operation is one of the main income items of the Egyptian budget.
25. Aswan hydroelectric complex (dam) (Aswan city)
Aswan hydroelectric complex (dam) – one of the major attractions of Egypt
The great engineering invention of the 20th century in Egypt is the Aswan Dam, which, by the way, was designed by Soviet engineers. The creation of the dam allowed the country to solve the problem of floods, control the floods of the Nile River and switch to year-round irrigation of the land. But at the same time, one should not forget that the dam also brought troubles associated with the destruction of the houses of local Egyptians and ancient monuments located on the path of water. The dam is a huge dam with a stone fill, the core of which is cement and clay. A 4-lane highway runs along the top of the dam, and six tunnels have been created on the right bank of the Nile to bring water to the hydroelectric power station. As a result of the construction of the dam, a huge artificial reservoir was formed – Lake Nasser, one of the largest artificial lakes in the world, which is actively used today for land irrigation.
26. Nile River (Egypt)
< img title="Egypt Attractions: Top 30" src="/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/dostoprimechatelnosti-egipta-top-30-f9377b2.jpg" alt="Egypt Attractions: Top 30" />< /p> River Nile and boats at sunset in Aswan
If we mention the natural attractions of Egypt, the report must certainly include one of its recognizable symbols – the most important water artery of the country, the Nile River. Indeed, the fate of Egypt has always been closely connected with the Nile – the sacred river was the source of life for the ancient civilization, starting from the Stone Age. And the very birth of Ancient Egypt was due to this great river. And to this day, all settlements are located in the Nile Valley, where almost the entire population of the country lives, because the Nile is the main source of fresh water here. Among other things, the main tourist route runs along the Nile – after all, it is here that the vast majority of ancient monuments are concentrated. Cruises are constantly organized along the waters of the river: a comfortable trip on a boat is an ideal way to get to know the country, its values and culture.
27. Hurghada Grand Aquarium (Hurghada)
Hurghada Grand Aquarium in the historical district of El Dahar Hatem Moushir
Unique in its kind is the Hurghada Aquarium – this is the first largest aquarium in the world, where the flora and fauna of the Red Sea is collected in such quantity and diversity. This facility was opened quite recently – at the beginning of 2015, and occupied an area of 40 thousand square meters, and in the future it is planned to open an area of another 100 thousand square meters. The main objective of the construction of Hurghada Grand was to preserve the endangered species of animals of the Red Sea. In the halls of the Aquarium there are 24 thematic exhibitions corresponding to different types of environment. For example, in one of the sections there are sharks, stingrays, between which smaller fish scurry about, an artificially cultivated coral reef is also located here. The other section displays the remains of ancient whales. It also recreated the rainforest zone, there is a mini-zoo, a whale valley, an exhibition dedicated to the life and life of the Bedouins, and much more.
Official website: https://hurghadaaquarium< /p>
28. Blue Hole (Red Sea) (Dahab)
View of the Blue Hole from the Red Sea
And what is in Egypt from the interesting creations of nature? The first thing that deserves attention is an extraordinary natural formation near the Sinai coast. The so-called Blue Hole is a complex of vertical underwater caves, which from the surface of the water look like a bottomless dark spot in the emerald sea, like a mysterious gate to another dimension. At a depth of about 56 meters, a tunnel begins – the so-called “Arch” of overhanging corals, and passing this path without scuba gear is considered a special professionalism among divers. The fate of many divers who decided to go through the path without equipment turned out to be sad and brought negative fame to this place. At the same time, do not be afraid to dive into the waters of the Blue Hole with equipment and to a depth of no more than 30 meters – this is quite enough to get acquainted with the beautiful coral world of the Red Sea.
29. Cairo Nilometer (Roda Island)< /h3>
Cairo nilometer at the southern tip of the island of Roda Baldiri
As already known, the life of Egypt, since antiquity, was inextricably linked with the great river Nile. Every year, the Nile flooded, providing irrigation to the land, but the fluctuations in the water level were not always the same – in some years there were droughts that brought massive famine, in others – floods with catastrophic consequences. To predict the behavior of this river, the Egyptians 5 thousand years ago invented a kind of instrument for measuring the water level – the so-called nilometer. One of these structures, which have survived to this day, is located in Cairo, on the island of Roda. It is an octagonal marble column located in a deep square well. In order to find out the water level, it was necessary to go down the stairs and inspect the column. Water entered the well through 3 pipes installed at different depths. According to the notches on the column, it was determined what the year would be – dry, favorable, or whether floods should be expected.
Official website: http://www.waterhistory
30. White Desert (East of the Sahara Desert)
White desert between Bahariya and Farafra oases in Egypt
The impressive landscape of the White Desert in the north of the Farafra oasis Ysjyd
In the east of the Sahara Desert lies an unusual area of about 300 square kilometers – the White Desert, which in 2002 Egypt awarded the status of a national park. The snow-white sands of the desert shimmer with a pearly sheen, and in some places there are bizarre figures, as if in a science fiction movie. Millions of years ago, on the site of the White Desert, there was an ocean floor, on which the remains of microorganisms settled. Over time, the sea dried up, and the wind exposed a massive white layer. Today, at the entrance to the park, you can see the Crystal Mountain, where calcite crystals lie everywhere, shimmering in the sun. The next place is a small oasis with a spring, and further along the route, visitors have an incredible view of the White Desert. Particularly attractive against the backdrop of the sands are huge limestone figures resembling mushrooms in shape. The park ends with another oasis, in which a small village of Bedouins is located.